As careers and vocations become less available during times of ______, adolescents may be especially hard hit. Such difficult economic times may leave many adolescents confused about their roles in society.
For those who believe that technological progress has made the world a better place, such disruption is a natural part of rising ______. Although innovation kills some jobs, it creates new and better ones, as a more productive society becomes richer and its wealthier inhabitants demand more goods and services.
选词填空：that/who 要看先行词 + 形容词要看其前后
You need to have specialist teachers who ______ what they know. Thus once they enter school, children begin to define subjects and erect boundaries that needn’t otherwise exist.
Let’s say you love roller-skating. Just the thought of strapping on your roller-skates brings a smile to your face. You also know that roller-skating is excellent exercise. You have a ______ attitude toward it.
A generation ago, female faces were rare and, even today, visitors walking through the first floor of LeConte Hall will see a full corridor of exhibits _____ the many distinguished physicists who made history here, virtually all of them white males.
That is, the subjects ______ to high-fear warnings brushed their teeth more carefully than did those who saw low-fear warnings.
The combination of computational power and engineering advances will eventually enable lower-cost in-home care for the disabled, ______ use of driverless cars that may reduce drunk- and distracted-driving accidents, and countless home and service-industry uses for robots, from street cleaning to food preparation.
Fear can be an effective way to change behavior. One study compared the effects of high-fear and low-fear appeals on changes in attitudes and behaviors related to dental hygiene. One group of subjects was shown awful pictures of _____ teeth and diseased gums; another group was shown less frightening materials such as plastic teeth, charts, and graphs. Subjects who saw the frightening materials reported more anxiety and a greater desire to change the way they took care of their teeth than the low-fear group did.
Piaget said: “True adaptation to society comes ______ when the adolescent reformer attempts to put his ideas to work.”
Businesses that attract top ratings can enjoy rapid growth, as new customers are attracted by good reviews and ______ provide yet more positive feedback. So great is the influence of online ratings that many companies now hire digital reputation managers to ensure a favorable online identity.
With information no longer controlled by travel agents or hidden in business networks, the travel industry was revolutionized, as greater transparency helped ______ prices.
Innovation, the elixir of progress, has always cost people their jobs. In the Industrial Revolution hand weavers were ______ aside by the mechanical loom. Over the past 30 years the digital revolution has displaced many of the mid-skill jobs that supported 20th-century middle-class life. Typists, ticket agents, bank tellers and many production-line jobs have been dispensed with, just as the weavers were.
J) For some people, the best solution is to live in a communal residence, with special services. This isn’t available everywhere, however. In Boston, for example, homeless people tend to be scattered in apartments throughout the city.
A、A review of extensive educational research shows no obvious academic advantage of single-sex schooling.
B、Some people think the best way to help the homeless is to provide them with communal housing.
K) Common Ground’s large residences in New York offer insight into the possibilities for change when homeless people have a rich array of supports. In addition to more traditional social services, residents also make use of communal gardens, classes in things like cooking, yoga, theatre and photography, and job placement. Last year, 188 formerly homeless tenants in four of Common Ground’s residences, found jobs.
A、Many formerly homeless tenants in New York’s Common Ground’s residences got hired.
B、The author did not have any fixed ideas on single-sex education when she began her research on the subject.
F) Not any longer. By the time we wake up to the threat posed by climate change, it could well be too late. And if we’re not going to make rational decisions about the future, others may have to help us to do so.
A、We should take our future into consideration in making decisions concerning climate change before it is too late.
B、Common Ground’s residences are well-managed and by and large peaceful.
O) Nick Perks, project director for Climate Solidarity, believes this sort of activity is where the future of environmental action lies. “Using existing civil society structures or networks is a more effective way of creating change... and obviously trade unions are one of the biggest civil society networks in the UK,” he says. The “Love Food, Hate Waste” campaign entered into a collaboration last year with another such network – the Women’s Institute. Londoner Rachel Taylor joined the campaign with the aim of making new friends. A year on, the meetings have made lasting changes to what she throws away in her kitchen. “It’s always more of an incentive if you’re doing it with other people,” she says. “It motivates you more if you know that you’ve got to provide feedback to a group.”
A、Existing social networks can be more effective in creating change in people’s behaviour.
B、Housing the homeless is only the first step to solving all their problems.
长篇阅读：重要逻辑（转折 + 条件）
D) Part of the fault lies with our inner caveman. Evolution has programmed humans to pay most attention to issues that will have an immediate impact. “We worry most about now because if we don’t survive for the next minute, we’re not going to be around in ten years’ time,” says Professor Elke Weber of the Centre for Research on Environmental Decisions at Columbia University in New York. If the Thames were lapping around Big Ben, Londoners would face up to the problem of emissions pretty quickly. But in practice, our brain discounts the risks – and benefits – associated with issues that lie some way ahead.
A、Teenagers of today often turn to their parents for advice on such important matters as career choice.
B、In their evolution, humans have learned to pay attention to the most urgent issues instead of long-term concerns.
C) This inconsistency largely stems from a feeling of powerlessness. “When we can’t actually remove the source of our fear, we tend to adapt psychologically by adopting a range of defence mechanisms,” says Tom Crompton, change strategist for the environmental organisation World Wide Fund for Nature.
A、Even during the turbulent years of last century, youth rebellion was often exaggerated in the media.
B、When people find they are powerless to change a situation, they tend to live with it.
O) It’s important to bear in mind that when we offer a structural interpretation of unemployment, a “loss of jobs” means an increase in productivity. Traditionally, economists have argued that productivity increases are a good thing, even though they may cause unemployment for some workers in the short run. In the long run, the economy does not run out of jobs. Rather, new jobs emerge as old jobs disappear. The story we tell is that average well-being rises, and the more people are able to adapt, the more widespread the improvement becomes.
A、While many countries use the smarter EMV cards, the US still clings to its old magstripe technology.
B、Increases in productivity prove beneficial though some people may lose their jobs temporarily.
F) When Watts looked into the history of “the greatest painting of all time”, he discovered that, for most of its life, the “Mona Lisa” remained in relative obscurity. In the 1850s, Leonardo da Vinci was considered no match for giants of Renaissance art like Titian and Raphael, whose works were worth almost ten times as much as the “Mona Lisa”. It was only in the 20th century that Leonardo’s portrait of his patron’s wife rocketed to the number-one spot. What propelled it there wasn’t a scholarly re-evaluation, but a theft.
A、A study of the history of the greatest paintings suggests even a great work of art could experience years of neglect.
B、Until recently American society has failed to see what homelessness is all about.
E) But the momentum of incandescent lighting does not stop there. All of those specialized bulbs led to the building of specialized light fixtures, from the desk lamp you study by, to the ugly but beloved hand-painted Chinese lamp you inherited from your grandmother, to the ceiling fixture in your closet, to the light in your oven or refrigerator, and to the light that the dentist points at you. It is easy to change a light bulb, sure, but it is harder to change the bulb and its fixture.
A、The author suggests a return to the true spirit of the market.
B、Changing a light bulb is easier than changing the fixture housing it.
A) Politicians are fond of promising rapid energy transitions. Whether it is a transition from imported to domestic oil or from coal-powered electricity production to natural-gas power plants, politicians love to talk big. Unfortunately for them (and often the taxpayers), our energy systems are a bit like an aircraft carrier: they are unbelievably expensive, they are built to last for a very long time, they have a huge amount of inertia (meaning it takes a lot of energy to set them moving), and they have a lot of momentum once they are set in motion. No matter how hard you try, you can’t turn something that large on a dime, or even a few thousand dimes.
A、A quarter of the world’s prisoner population is in America.
B、Energy systems, like an aircraft carrier set in motion, have huge momentum.
H) What took place after World War II was not the revival of a 1920s economy, with its small farming units, urban manufacturing, and plurality of laborers. Instead, the 1950s saw the creation of a new suburban economy, with a plurality of white-collar workers. With an expanded transportation and communications infrastructure, businesses needed telephone operators, shipping clerks and similar occupations. If you could read, follow simple instructions, and settle into a routine, you could find a job in the post-war economy.
A、Attempts are being made to prevent hackers from carrying out identity theft.
B、The creation of a suburban economy in the 1950s created lots of office jobs.
M) Using the latest Census Bureau data, Matthew Slaughter found that from 2000 to 2010 the real earnings of college graduates (with no advanced degree) fell by more in percentage terms than the earnings of high school graduates. In fact, over this period the only education category to show an increase in earnings was those with advanced degrees.
A、In the first decade of the 21st century, only people with postgraduate degrees experienced an increase in earnings.
B、Big banks have been reluctant to switch to more secure technology because of the higher costs involved.
G) The second line of research often used to justify single-sex education falls squarely within my area of expertise: brain and cognitive development. It’s been more than a decade now since the “brain sex movement” began infiltrating our schools, and there are literally hundreds of schools caught up in the fad. Public schools in Wisconsin, Indiana, Florida and many other states now proudly declare on their websites that they separate boys and girls because “research solidly indicates that boys and girls learn differently,” due to “hard-wired” differences in their brains, eyes, ears, autonomic nervous systems, and more.
A、One recent study warns us of the danger of the exhaustion of natural resources on Earth.
B、Hundreds of schools separate boys from girls in class on the alleged brain and cognitive differences.
C) I want to suggest a third interpretation. Without ruling out a role for aggregate demand or for the regulatory environment, I wish to suggest that structural change is an important factor in the current rate of high unemployment. The economy is in a state of transition, in which the middle-class jobs that emerged after World War II have begun to decline. As Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee put it in a recent e-book Race Against the Machine: “The root of our problems is not that we’re in a great recession, or a great stagnation, but rather that we are in the early throes of a great restructuring.”
A、The author suggests that the recent high unemployment rate is mainly caused by a decrease of middle-class jobs.
B、One study shows that our neighbours’ actions are influential in changing our behaviour.
The existing poverty line could be improved by adding some income sources and subtracting some expenses. Unfortunately, the administration’s proposal for a “supplemental poverty measure” in 2011 goes beyond that. The new poverty number would compound public confusion. It also raises questions about whether the statistic is tailored to favor a political agenda. What does the author think of the administration’s proposal for a “supplemental poverty measure”?
A、A) It is based on an erroneous climate model.
B、It is intended to further help the poor.
C、It is the greatest threat to social stability.
D、It is made to serve political purposes.
There may be something in both arguments, but in most rich countries sexism is no longer the main obstacle to women’s careers. Children are. Most women take career breaks to look after them. Many care for elderly relatives, too. One study found that two-thirds of American women had at some point switched from full-time work to part-time or flexible time to balance work and family. Such choices make it harder for women to gain the experience necessary to make it to the very top. What does the author say is the real barrier to women’s careers?
A、The widespread sexism in the workplace.
B、The burden of taking care of their family.
Why does the U.S. need to learn a little frugality? Because healthy savings rates are one of the surest indicators of a country’s long-term financial health. High savings lead, over time, to increased investment, which in turn generates productivity gains, innovation and job growth. In short, savings are the seed corn of a good economic harvest. What does the author mean by saying “savings are the seed corn of a good economic harvest”?
A、A country’s economy hinges on its savings policy.
B、Government will find it hard to protect classified information.
C、A healthy savings rate promotes economic prosperity.
D、A time machine is needed to testify to its truth.
“About once a week, I have a client that will bring up a new certification I’ve never even heard of and I’m in this industry,” said Kevin Wilhelm, chief executive officer of Sustainable Business Consulting. “It’s kind of a Wild West, anybody can claim themselves to be green.” Mr. Wilhelm said the excess of labels made it difficult for businesses and consumers to know which labels they should pay attention to. What does Kevin Wilhelm imply by saying “It’s kind of a Wild West”?
A、Each business acts its own way in green labeling.
B、Individuals and organizations may use it for evil purposes.
C、People’s attention will be easily distracted from their work in hand.
D、Businesses compete to produce green products.
This type of learning is not confined to museums or institutional settings. Informal learning environments tolerate failure better than schools. Perhaps many teachers have too little time to allow students to form and pursue their own questions and too much ground to cover in the curriculum. But people must acquire this skill somewhere. Our society depends on them being able to make critical decisions about their own medical treatment, say, or what we must do about global energy needs and demands. For that, we have a robust informal learning system that gives no grades, takes all comers, and is available even on holidays and weekends. What does the author seem to encourage educators to do at the end of the passage?
A、Design more interactive classroom activities.
B、Publicise the achievements of their graduates.
C、Go to extra lengths to cater to students’ needs.
D、Make full use of informal learning resources.
Consider Paul Krugman writing breathlessly in the New York Times about the “rising incidence of extreme events,” He claims that global warming caused the current drought in America’s Midwest, and that supposedly record-high corn prices could cause a global food crisis. But the United Nations climate panel’s latest assessment tells us precisely the opposite. For “North America there is medium confidence that there has an overall slight tendency toward less dryness”. Moreover, there is no way that Krugman could have identified this drought as being caused by global warming without a time machine; climate models estimate that such detection will be possible by 2048, at the earliest. What is the author’s comment on Krugman’s claim about the current drought in America’s Midwest?
A、It will eventually get proof in 2048.
B、It focuses on theory rather than on practical skills.
C、There is no way to prove its validity.
D、There is no essential difference between seemingly opposite opinions.
Yet there are doubts whether people watching television, a “lean back” medium, crave interaction. Click-through rates have been high so far (around 3–4%, compared with less than 0.3% online), but that may be a result of the novelty. Interactive ads and viewers might not go well together. How does the author view the hitherto high click-through rates?
A、They point to the growing curiosity of TV viewers.
B、They may be due to the novel way of advertising.
C、They had no chance to touch them when shopping online.
D、They had to tighten their belts.
Economic inequality is the “defining challenge of our time,” President Barack Obama declared in a speech last month to the Center for American Progress. Inequality is dangerous, he argued, not merely because it doesn’t look good to have a large gap between the rich and the poor, but because inequality itself destroys upward mobility, making it harder for the poor to escape from poverty. “Increased inequality and decreasing mobility pose a fundamental threat to the American Dream,” he said. How does Obama view economic inequality?
A、It is the most malicious social evil of our time.
B、It is a positive response to changed circumstances.
C、It is the biggest obstacle to social mobility.
D、It is an attempt to combat the economic recession.
仔细阅读：建议类题型 + 担忧类题型
How do we fix this problem? It starts with reforming the physician reimbursement system. Remove the pressure for primary care physicians to squeeze in more patients per hour, and reward them for optimally managing their diseases and practicing evidence-based medicine. Make primary care more attractive to medical students by forgiving student loans for those who choose primary care as a career and reconciling the marked difference between specialist and primary care physician salaries. What suggestion does the author give in order to provide better health care?
A、Include collaborative inquiry in the curriculum.
B、Bridge the salary gap between specialists and primary care physicians.
C、Train students to think about global issues.
D、Recruit more medical students by offering them loans.
It might be tempting, therefore, to think that the old barriers have been broken down and equal opportunity achieved. But, increasingly, this apparent diversity is becoming a mask for a new type of conformity. Behind the differences in sex, skin tones and mother tongues, there are common attitudes, expectations and ambitions which risk creating a set of clones among the business leaders of the future. What is the author’s concern about current business school education?
A、It adversely affects a firm’s performance.
B、It will arouse students’ unrealistic expectations.
C、It fails to identify the keys to success.
D、It will produce business leaders of a uniform style.
Some 50 studies show that companies that commit to such aspirational goals as zero waste, zero harmful emissions, and zero use of non-renewable resources are financially outperforming their competitors. Conversely, it was found that climate disruption is already costing $1.2 trillion annually, cutting global GDP by 1.6%. Unaddressed, this will double by 2030. What is the finding of the studies about companies committed to environmental goals?
A、They make greater contributions to human progress than their rivals.
B、They indicate the future direction of media reform.
C、They do much better than their counterparts in terms of revenues.
D、They signify the popularity of interactive advertising.
Across the board, American colleges and universities are not doing a very good job of preparing their students for the workplace or their post-graduation lives. This was made clear by the work of two sociologists, Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa. In 2011 they released a landmark study titled “Academically Adrift,” which documented the lack of intellectual growth experienced by many people enrolled in college. In particular, Arum and Roksa found, college students were not developing the critical thinking, analytic reasoning and other higher-level skills that are necessary to thrive in today’s knowledge-based economy and to lead our nation in a time of complex challenges and dynamic change. What is Arum and Roksa’s finding about higher education in America?
A、It has experienced dramatic changes in recent years.
B、It is a simple solution to a tangled problem.
C、It helps fill the executive board with talents.
D、It fails to prepare students to face the challenges of modern times.
仔细阅读：原因结果题 + 细节题
One hundred years ago, “Colored” was the typical way of referring to Americans of African descent. Twenty years later, it was purposefully dropped to make way for “Negro.” By the late 1960s, that term was overtaken by “Black.” And then, at a press conference in Chicago in 1988, Jesse Jackson declared that “African American” was the term to embrace. This one was chosen because it echoed the labels of groups, such as “Italian Americans” and “Irish Americans,” that had already been freed of widespread discrimination. Why did Jesse Jackson embrace the term “African American” for people of African descent?
A、It follows the standard naming practice.
B、It is more accurate and scientific in terms of statistics.
C、It encouraged them to embark on a political career.
D、It is free from racial biases.
“The grim economy seems to make the participants keener than ever to think ‘out of the box’ in the way poetry encourages,” he told me. I’m not suggesting that poetry will guide our legislators to wisdom any more than prayer has. Just that it might make them a little more human. Poetry is no substitute for courage or competence, but properly applied, it is a challenge to self-certainty, which we currently have in excess. Poetry serves as a spur to creative thinking, a reproach to dogma and habit, a remedy to the current fashion for pledge signing. What was the impact of the poetry session on the program participants according to Professor Filreis?
A、It led them to think poetry indispensable to management.
B、It inspired them to view things from broader perspectives.
C、It can help to locate profitable niches.
D、It is noted for its detailed data analysis.